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Entomology (from Greek ἔντομος, entomos, "that which is cut in pieces or engraved/segmented", hence "insect" and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of insects, a branch of arthropodology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. It is a specialty within the field of biology. Though technically incorrect, the definition is sometimes widened to include the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, myriapods, earthworms, land snails, and slugs.
Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category; any form of scientific study in which there is a focus on insect related inquiries is, by definition, entomology. Entomology therefore includes a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, behavior, biomechanics, biochemistry, systematics, physiology, developmental biology, ecology, morphology, paleontology, anthropology, robotics, agriculture, nutrition, forensic science and more.
History of entomology
Entomology in popular culture
Gil Grissom on the CSI: Crime Scene Investigation TV show is an entomologist, who is played by actor William Petersen. Similarly, entomologist Jack Hodgins of Bones, portrayed by TJ Thyne, helps his team by analyzing insects (such as Hydrotaea) and "particulates" near to or attached to decomposed victims, often identifying the precise location a murder originally occurred; he is also an expert in botany and mineralogy.
The Aubrey–Maturin sea novels of Patrick O'Brian have frequent appearances by Sir Joseph Blaine, a Royal Navy intelligence official who is also an avid entomologist. He recruits Dr. Stephen Maturin, one of the principal characters, as a spy. Their conferences on espionage activities invariably make room for their shared interest in naturalist studies.
There are numerous science fiction books which have plots based on humans becoming smaller and having to deal with insects at their level. Some examples are The Insect Warriors by Rex Dean Levie, Atta by Francis Rufus Bellamy, Bug Park by James P. Hogan, The Micronauts series by Gordon Williams, and The Forgotten Planet by Murray Leinster. The Forgotten Planets plot is twisted in that the insects are the size of men (or larger) on a planet "seeded" to prepare it for human habitation. Robert Asprin wrote The Bug Wars, a novel about war between reptiles and insects on an interplanetary scale.
There are quite a few films about insects, or at least prominently featuring them. Widespread attitudes of revulsion and fear toward insects are often exploited by Horror and Science Fiction films through insect/insect-like monsters (Them! is a famous early example), or by showing humans transformed into (The Fly) or attacked by insects. Another more positive type of insect film is animation with anthropomorphized insects as characters.
Identification of insects
Most insects can easily be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, and ants) or Coleoptera (beetles). However, insects other than Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are typically identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs. Because the class Insecta contains a very large number of species (over 330,000 species of beetles alone) and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, and often subtle (or invisible without a microscope), this is often very difficult even for a specialist.
Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local, national, and international organizations. There are also many organizations specializing in specific subareas.
Here is a list of selected museums which contain very large insect collections.
- Professor Andrew Speilman. "Malaria video". http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/87. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Rob Hutchinson. "Mosquitoes video". http://www.vega.org.uk/video/programme/52. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- University of Vermont. "Entomology Laboratory". http://www.uvm.edu/~entlab. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Iowa State University. "Iowa State Entomology Index of Internet Resources". http://www.ent.iastate.edu/list/. Retrieved 2011-07-23.
- Meganeura, University of Barcelona. "Fossil Insects". Archived from the original on 2006-11-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20061114232025/http://www.ub.es/dpep/meganeura/meganeura.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Goliathus (Entomology hobbyist site)". http://www.goliathus.cz/. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- "Medical Entomology images". http://parasite.natur.cuni.cz/jirovec/index.php?category=11. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- University of Nebraska State Museum. "Division of Entomology". http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Graeme Cocks. "Insects of Townsville, Australia". http://gvcocks.homeip.net/orders.html. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- Actronic. "Compendium of References on Flies and Disease". http://www.actroninc.com/flyref.htm. Retrieved 2006-12-09.
- USDA Collecting methods.Detailed instructions
- Arthropa Extensive photo album sorted by topic (French language).
- Virtual Insect Museum
- Best of the Bugs Entomology Web sites selected by entomologists
- G.D. Hale Carpenter, A Naturalist on Lake Victoria, with an Account of Sleeping Sickness and the Tse-tse Fly; 1920. T.F. Unwin Ltd, London; Biodiversity Archive.
- Tereshkin Scientific illustration in entomology Tereshkin, A. 2008: Methodology of a scientific drawings preparation in entomology on example of ichneumon flies (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Euroasian Entomological Journal, 7(1): 1-9 + I-VII
- Department of Entomology and Nematology at the University of Florida
- Department of Plant, Soil & Insect Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst
- Department of Entomology at Texas A&M University
- Department of Entomology at Purdue University
- Department of Entomology at University of Georgia
- Department of Entomology at Michigan State University
- Department of Entomology at University of California, Riverside
- Department of Entomology at Cornell University
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